Some Thoughts on A.J.P. Taylor’s The Origins of the Second World War

Update – April 8, 2019.

In December2013, A.J.P. Taylor’s The Origin of the Second World War appeared as the thesis most likely in regard to the origin of World War II.  Mr. Taylor, a highly regarded historian, and lived through the pre-World War II period.  Today, April 8, 2019, in the Unz Review appeared an article written by John Wear in January 26, 2018.  This article, with many citations, concludes that Franklin D. Roosevelt was the prime cause of World War II.  The major citations are from the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs documents captured by German forces in 1939 from the Ministry’s archives before they could have been destroyed.  “The German Foreign Office published the Polish documents on March 29, 1940.”  This German publication was known in the United States, and it is unbelievable that Mr. Taylor did not take the German publication into account when he wrote his book.  While Mr. Wear’s article is historical revisionism, it has a powerful message and cannot be ignored.  Let us wait and watch!

Original article.

24 December2013

A.J.P. Taylor’s The Origins of the Second World War, in my opinion, strongly contrasts with the majority of historians in regards to British culpability in the outbreak of this war.

When it came to Poland (after Czechoslovakia and Austria were occupied by Germany), Hitler’s objective was an alliance with Poland. Joseph Beck, Poland’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, believed that as long as he could keep the Danzig affair in the forefront, he could finesse Hitler’s offer of a German-Polish alliance, and, by so doing, “preserve Polish independence. Amid a great deal of rumors and provocations, Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, drafted assurances (March 30,1939)to the Polish Government:

“If…. any action were taken which clearly threatened their independence, and which the Polish Government accordingly felt obliged to resist with their national forces, His Majesty’s Government and the French Government would at once lend them all the support in their power.”

Taylor continues:

“That afternoon Beck was discussing with the British ambassador how to implement his proposal of a week earlier for a general declaration, when a telegram from London was brought in. The ambassador read out Chamberlain’s assurance. Beck accepted it “between two flicks of the ash of his cigarette”. Two flicks; and British grenadiers would die for Danzig. Two flicks; and the illusory great Poland, created in 1919 [the Versaille treaty], signed her death warrant. The assurance was unconditional: the Poles alone were to judge whether it should be called upon. The British could no longer urge Poland to co-operate with Soviet Russia. Germany and Russia were regarded in the West as two dangerous Powers, dictatorial in their governments , ruthless in their methods. Yet from this moment peace rested on the assumption that Hitler and Stalin would be more sensible and cautious than Chamberlain had been – that Hitler would continue to accept conditions at Danzig which most Englishmen had long regarded as intolerable, and that Stalin would be ready to cooperate on terms of manifest inequality. These assumptions were not likely to be fulfilled.”

“The British had no practical means with which to fulfill their assurance; it was a declaration in words only. Translated into practical terms, it could only be a promise that the French would not go back on their alliance with Poland, as they had done in Czechoslovakia.”

Most Germans had an “indelible grievance against [the] Versailles” treaty regarding the loss of German territory to Poland. While Danzig and a corridor linking East Prussia to Germany was important, Hitler had to do something about the loss of territory. In October 1938, Ribbentrop, the German foreign minister, discussed these aspects with Lipski, the Polish ambassador: “If Danzig and the corridor were settled, there could then be a ‘joint policy towards Russia on the basis of the Anti-Comintern Pact.” When Beck visited Hitler in January 1939, Hitler elaborated, but Beck did not respond. It was common knowledge that Poland aspired the territory of the Soviet Ukraine so that an alliance with Germany aimed toward the Soviet Union was consistent with Germany’s aims.

After the British alliance with Poland was known by others, the policies of France, Italy, Russia and Germany changed: “The Germans planned to dissolve the Anglo-Polish alliance; the Russians to exploit it. The French and the Italians both dreaded its implications for themselves and sought, in vain, a way to escape.” Chamberlain, with his alliance offer to Poland, created a monster.

“Was Polish obstinacy then the only thing which stood between Europe and a peaceful outcome? By no means. Previously Danzig might have been settled without implying any upheaval in international relations. Now it had become the symbol of Polish independence; and, with the Anglo-Polish alliance, of British independence as well. Hitler no longer wished merely to fulfill German national aspirations or to satisfy the inhabitants of Danzig. He aimed to show that he had imposed his will on the British and on the Poles. All parties aimed at a settlement by negotiation, but only after victory in a war of nerves.”

Chamberlain, with his Anglo-Polish alliance, blundered into an eventual war unless Britain and Poland agreed to Hitler’s demands. Negotiation without war was no longer possible. Poland was adamant and would not agree to Hitler’s demands. Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939, and this was the first phase of World War II. Britain “sleep-walked” the West into a World War with Germany. This was a war that was won neither by Germany nor the West, but by the Soviet Union. Poland and a good part of Germany were controlled by the Soviet Union after Germany surrendered in 1945.

What should Chamberlain have done in March of 1939? In my opinion, a prudent approach would have been for Britain to disengage from the German-Polish problem once it became clear that Poland had no intention of negotiating with Hitler. Britain should have left the Germans and Poles to resolve their differences between themselves. Further, if the final result was an attack on Poland by Germany, Britain should mobilize itself, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands into a defensive military alliance to protect Western Europe from Germany. By doing this, a German-Polish war might be limited to Central and Eastern Europe. Any expansion would have been because of aggressive German or Soviet Union aspirations. Hitler in 1939 did not feel confident of attacking the Soviet union without help. Neither before September 1, 1939 nor after the German victory over Poland did the Soviet Union show any signs that it wanted to start a war with Germany. After the conclusion of the German-Polish war, Hitler likely would concentrate on the South – Romania, Hungary, and the Balkan countries, and, also the Scandinavian countries.

While history shows that wars are caused by aggressive Hitler-type leaders, history also shows wars are started by blundering, stupid statesmen, such as, Chamberlain.

The Seven Contradictions Facing the United States

Sylvester J. Kowalski. November 3, 2018

The seven contradictions currently facing the U.S.:

  1. The federal debt. When will it implode?
  2. The high fiscal deficit due to the military program, and the belief that this deficit is sustainable. When will it not be sustainable?
  3. The high trade deficit due to the decades long de-industrialization. The trade deficit is being sustained by debt. How long can this go on?
  4. The high stock market capitalization versus the high U.S. corporate debt. A recent example is General Electric’s near bankruptcy due to its high debt. In all reality, GE’s problems are the result of asset stripping by its executives. How long is this fantasy market sustainable?
  5. The U.S. belief that it is the world hegemon, but, in reality, China is the world economic superpower and Russia is much more powerful militarily. While not admitting that this is the case, the U.S. is well aware that it no longer is the world hegemon. The trade wars, the “Russia is destroying the U.S.”, and the drive to leave the INF treaty are the U.S. responses to its dilemma.
  6. Trump’s infantile belief that he can re-industrialize the U.S. by invoking tariffs on its competitors. Re-industrialization can only be accomplished by blood, sweat, and tears. Re-industrialization has a cost, and that cost must come from the hides of Americans.
  7. The Pentagon believes it can regain its military superpower status by leaving the INF treaty and then successfully blackmail Russia with a threat of (or actual) limited nuclear strike with new intermediate nuclear missiles.. Russia likely will neutralize this threat by installing nuclear missiles in Cuba, and all aimed at the U.S.

How long can the U.S. continue functioning with all of these contradictions? There is no easy answer. Likely, the key issue is the federal debt, and the stability of the U.S. Treasury bond market. The availability of foreign buyers and the maintenance of low interest rates are likely key. Interest rates are rising, but whether this is a trend is something unknown by other than central bankers.




US Imperialism

Sylvester J. Kowalski, October 24, 2018

David Harvey’s The New Imperialism is a must-read to get an understanding of the US’s method of imperialism and its concurrent actions in capital accumulation. In the first several chapters, he outlines the US imperialism and especially capital-accumulation, since 1870. The purpose of imperialism is to facilitate capital accumulation. Crisis occurs when capital-accumulation is stymied, such as in the 1846-1850 (in Europe), during the US Civil War, and during the 1930s US Great Depression. At the beginning of the 2000s, the US embarked on the Middle East ‘War on Terror’ to rejuvenate its need for capital-accumulation, but, during this period, two significant competitors began their long quest of standing in the way of US hegemony: China and Russia. Until 2015, when Russia entered the Syrian war on Syria’s behalf, and until China about 2015 announced, its Belt Road Initiative, the US ignored both of these powers. Currently, the US cannot extract capital from either Russia or China, and, as a consequence, is going through a crisis. The US in response is using economic (sanctions, tariffs against China, etc.), political shouting, and military (all kinds of military threats including a first nuclear strike against Russia, all to no avail.

China now has an economy, when based on purchasing power parity, greater than that of the U.S., and will begin to extract capital from other countries as Belt Road Initiative continues. Russia for its part has been successful in economic growth in Russia and its successful global trade. Now with the Saudi Arabia, Russia formed OPEC+ which has, since its inception, balanced oil supply and demand, and consequently stabilized oil prices. Its goal is oil at $65 to $70 a barrel. US stupidity has increased the oil price to $80 a barrel because of US sanctions on Iran, instigating political problems in Venezuela, and destroying Libya. Obviously Trump is livid, and is demanding that Saudi Arabia increase oil production. What is important is that Russia is now controlling oil prices. The US now has little influence on this important commodity.

The US is now in a crisis relative to its inability whether by economic, political, or military means to continue capital accumulation because Russia and China have stymied this US process.


The Death of the U.S. Empire

Sylvester J. Kowalski, July 12, 2018

David Harvey in his book The New Imperialism (OUP Oxford, Kindle Edition) importantly explains the economic complexity of the United States. The following quotation introduces us to this complexity.

“Imperialism is a word that trips easily off the tongue. But it has such different meanings that it is difficult to use it without clarification as an analytic rather than a polemical term. I here define that special brand of it called ‘capitalist imperialism’ as a contradictory fusion of ‘the politics of state and empire’ (imperialism as a distinctively political project on the part of actors whose power is based in command of a territory and a capacity to mobilize its human and natural resources towards political, economic, and military ends) and ‘the molecular processes of capital accumulation in space and time’ (imperialism as a diffuse political-economic process in space and time in which command over and use of capital takes primacy). With the former I want to stress the political, diplomatic, and military strategies invoked and used by a state (or some collection of states operating as a political power bloc) as it struggles to assert its interests and achieve its goals in the world at large. With the latter, I focus on the ways in which economic power flows across and through continuous space, towards or away from territorial entities (such as states or regional power blocs) through the daily practices of production, trade, commerce, capital flows, money transfers, transfers, labour migration, technology transfer, currency speculation, flows of information, cultural impulses, and the like.”

In the following quotation, Mr. Harvey introduces us to a concept that is foreign thinking to most of us – “….. recognizing the compelling need felt on the part of business interests in the United States to keep as much of the world as possible open to capital accumulation through the expansion of trade, commerce, and opportunities for foreign investment.”

“It would be hard to make sense of the Vietnam War or the invasion of Iraq, for example, solely in terms of the immediate requirements of capital accumulation. Indeed, a plausible case can be made that such ventures inhibit rather than enhance the fortunes of capital. But, by the same token, it is hard to make sense of the general territorial strategy of containment of Soviet Power by the United States after the Second World War—the strategy that set the stage for US intervention in Vietnam—without recognizing the
compelling need felt on the part of business interests in the United States to keep as much of the world as possible open to capital accumulation through the expansion of trade, commerce, and opportunities for foreign investment.“

“With these insights, we can more readily understand the 21st century imperialism of the United States. A sovereign country is a barrier to this “open” imperialism, and we can begin to understand the U.S. aggression to independent countries, such as, Cuba, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Venezuela, Turkey, Iran, Russia, and China. These countries are, or had been before U.S. aggression, sovereign countries.”

A contradiction arose between bourgeois nationalism and imperialism – no outlets for surplus capital. As Mr. Harvey states:

“The underlying contradiction between bourgeois nationalism and imperialism could not be resolved, while the rising need to find geographical outlets for surplus capitals put all manner of pressures on political power within each imperialist state to expand geographical control. The overall result, as Lenin so accurately predicted, was fifty years of inter-imperialist rivalry and war in which rival nationalisms featured large. Its essential features involved the carving up of the globe into distinctive terrains of colonial possession or exclusionary influence (most dramatically in the grab for Africa of 1885 and the Versailles settlement after the First World War, including its partitioning of the Middle East between French and British protectorates); the pillaging of much of the world’s resources by the imperial powers; and the widespread deployment of virulent doctrines of racial superiority; all matched by a total and predictable failure to deal with the surplus capital problem within closed imperial domains, as seen in the great depression of the 1930s. Then came the ultimate global conflagration of 1939–45.”

After 1945, the global economy became stabilized. Mr. Harvey states:

“The period from 1945 to 1970 was, then, the second stage in the political rule of the bourgeoisie operating under global US dominance and hegemony. It brought a period of remarkably strong economic growth to the advanced capitalist countries. A tacit global compact was established among all the major capitalist powers, with the US in a clear leadership role, to avoid internecine wars and to share in the benefits of an intensification of an integrated capitalism in the core regions.”

The stable period ended about 1970. The U.S. excess of “guns and butter” was the cause.

“This second stage in global rule of the bourgeoisie came to an end around 1970 or so. The problems were multiple. First there was the classic problem of all imperial regimes—overreach. The containment of (and attempt to subvert) communism proved rather more costly than expected for the United States. The rising costs of the military conflict in Vietnam, when coupled with the golden rule of never-ending domestic consumerism—a policy of guns and butter—proved impossible to sustain, since military expenditures provide only short-run outlets for surplus capital and generate little in the way of long-term relief to the internal contradictions of capital accumulation. The result was a fiscal crisis of the developmental state within the United States. The immediate response was to use the right of seigniorage and print more


“This system has now run into serious difficulties. As in 1973–5, the causes are multiple, though this time the volatility and chaotic fragmentation of power conflicts within political-economic life make it hard to discern what is happening behind all the smoke and mirrors (particularly those of the financial sector).”

“Either new arenas of profitable capital accumulation (such as China) must be opened up, or, failing that, there will have to be a new round of devaluation of capital. The question becomes: who will bear the brunt of a new round of that devaluation? Where will the axe fall? The trend towards ‘regionalization’ within the global economy then appears more worrying. Echoes of the geopolitical competition that became so destructive in the 1930s begin to be heard. US abandonment of the spirit if not the letter of the WTO rules against protectionism by the imposition of tariffs on steel imports in 2002 was a particularly ominous sign.”

“A major faultline of instability lies in the rapid deterioration in the balance of payments situation of the United States.”

Mr. Harvey explains the ramifications (or, better yet: the consequences) of the past financialization of the U.S. economy.

“But the hegemony and dominance of the United States is, once more, under threat, and this time the danger seems more acute. Its roots lie in the unbalanced reliance upon finance capital as a means to assert hegemony. Historically, Arrighi (following Braudel) points out, financial expansions indicate ‘not just the maturity of a particular stage of development of the capitalist world-economy, but also the beginning of a new stage’. If financialization is a likely prelude to a transfer of dominant power from one hegemon to another (as has historically been the case) then the US turn towards financialization in the 1970s would appear to have been a peculiarly self-destructive move. The deficits (both internal and external) cannot continue to spiral out of control indefinitely, and the ability and willingness of others (primarily in Asia) to fund them is not inexhaustible.”

Rather than attack the root cause of the problem, the U.S. embarked on a program of manipulation in order to maintain hegemony.

“As Gowan remarks: ‘Washington’s capacity to manipulate the dollar price and to exploit Wall Street’s international financial dominance enabled the US authorities to avoid doing what other states have had to do: watch the balance of payments; adjust the domestic economy to ensure high levels of domestic savings and investment; watch levels of public and private indebtedness; ensure an effective domestic system of financial intermediation to ensure the strong development of the domestic productive
sector.’ The US economy has had ‘an escape route from all these tasks’ and ‘by all normal yardsticks of capitalist national accounting’ has become ‘deeply distorted and unstable’ as a result.”

All that the manipulation succeeded in doing was to prolong the agony (or, “kick the can down the road”). The U.S. first had a recession in 2001, and, then, a financial crisis in 2008. To solve the 2008 crisis, the Federal Reserve drove interest rates to near zero and embarked on a massive Qualitative Easing – a euphemism for infinite printing of money.

And, an economic hegemon did come forward – China. First, China’s economy on a Purchasing Parity basis exceeded that of the U.S. Then, China began the Belt and Road Initiative which will allow China to be the global economic leader. Further, it started China 2025 whose goal is to be the global technological leader in ten technological areas. All of this terrifies the U.S., and we now see some very amateurish actions by the Trump administration to somehow contain China’s economic rise. It has started a global trade war which somehow is to reverse the past U.S. economic blunders.

The mistake that U.S. made was to de-industrialize after 1970. Now, the only solution, and a very painful solution, is to re-industrialize. The U.S. consumes more than it produces. Economically, a successful country produces more than it consumes. Re-industrialization is the only answer for the U.S. As of today, the U.S. economically is in a much lower position than China.

Today, the U.S. is, militarily, in second place to Russia (see Andrei Martyanov’s brilliant analysis in Losing Military Supremacy The Myopia of American Strategic Planning. Clarity Press. Kindle Edition.), and, economically, it is it least in second place to China. This is the consequence of the U.S. political elite’s incompetence ever since 1945.

The U.S. Empire is in shambles, and we can hear it’s death-rattle.







God, Christ and Faith`: “Confronting Power and Sex in the Catholic Church” by Bishop Geoffrey Robinson

Sylvester J. Kowalski, June 12, 2018

I was given the gift of Faith by The Holy Spirit when I was a young adult. My search for God took me on a difficult, multi-year pilgrimage. I had my Epiphany in somewhat the same manner as St. Paul had his on the road to Damascus. I have to emphasize that my Faith is a gift from God. Not withstanding my Faith from the time of my young adulthood, I have endeavored to read and study the works of outstanding Christian thinkers. The two major figures are Hans Kung and Bishop Francis Hodur (Prime Bishop of the Polish National Catholic Church, now deceased).  What I wish to discuss is a relatively new profound, Christian thinker – Bishop Geoffrey Robinson. His book, Confronting Power and Sex in the Catholic Church is a must read. Bishop Robinson was an Auxiliary Bishop in the Archdiocese of Sydney, Australia, and in 1994 was assigned in an official position in regards to sexual abuse by Catholic clergy in his diocese. His book intelligently shows the complexity of the issue, and he insists that further study in the following areas are needed in order to fully understand the root cause of Catholic clergy sexual abuse of children: (a) the clergy live in “An Unhealthy Psychological State”; (b) “Unhealthy Ideas Concerning Power and Sexuality” exists in the autocratic Catholic hierarchy’s dominant beliefs, dogmas, practices, etc.: and, (c) the Catholic clergy live in “An Unhealthy Environment of Community”.

Bishop Robinson worked on this sexual abuse tragedy for about 10 years, and experienced a great deal of emotional and psychological stress in dealing with the uncovered issues. But the most difficult point was when he came under attack by the Vatican regarding his work. I quote from his book: “When in front of several journalist’s at a public meeting, I answered a victim’s question by saying I was not happy with the level of support we were receiving from ‘Rome’, I received an official letter (7 August 1996) expressing ‘the ongoing concern of the Congregation for Bishops that you had in recent months expressed views that are seriously critical of the magisterial teaching and discipline of the Church”. In addition Bishop Robinson was told that these issues disturbed the Pope. Two months later, he received notification that all relevant documents that he was involved with relative to his sexual abuse duties were to be forwarded to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (The Inquisition.). Bishop Robinson’s conclusion was that the Vatican was “implying that I was suspected of some form of heresy”. So, we can forget that the Pope and the Vatican are Christ-like in their actions. Both are perfect examples of the anti-Christ, and the evil that resides in the Catholic hierarchy. The end result of all this (and, likely more), Bishop Robinson resigned, later wrote his book relating to power and sexuality in the Catholic Church. His book devotes most of its pages at looking at the wider Catholic church issues that were instrumental in both the Catholic clergy sex abuse and the cover-up by the Catholic hierarchy.

The titles of the first three chapters shows the profound thinking of Bishop Robinson: Chapter 1. Healthy People in a Health Relationship with a Healthy God: Chapter 2. The Two Books of God; and, Chapter 3. Spiritual Discernment.   This book provides an outline with specifics for the re-assesment of the present state of the Catholic Church and, at least, a starting point for rethinking what a Christ-like church should like and act.







































x    God, Christ and Faith

“What is it that human beings owe to each other”

Rowan Williams states that Dostoevsky was in general asking the question: “What is it that human beings owe to each other?” His answer:

“At the beginning of this introduction, I summed up the central question posed by the various moral crises to which Dostoevsky was seeking to respond as “What is it that human beings owe to each other?” The incapacity to answer that question coherently—or indeed to recognize that it is a question at all—was for Dostoevsky more than just a regrettable lack of philosophical rigor; it was an opening to the demonic—that is, to the prospect of the end of history, imagination, and speech, the dissolution of human identity”.    (Williams, Rowan. Dostoevsky (Making of the Christian Imagination) (p. 14). Baylor University Press. Kindle Edition.)

Some questions: Doesn’t our current world look demonic as Dostoevsky wrote in the 19th century? Wasn’t George Bush’s War on Terror demonic? Isn’t Obama’s terror war in Syria which was aimed at regime change demonic? Isn’t Trump’s pledge to nuke North Korea demonic? (This is not to say that all of his utterances are other than demonic.) Isn’t the U.S. policy of controlling the world which was developed prior to Pearl Harbor demonic? Isn’t the blather emanating from the cultural Marxists demonic?

God help the United Syates!

Why Is The United States Showing So Much Anger At Russia?

Sylvester J. Kowalski, November 29, 2017

The anger of the United States noticeably started in 2014, made a step increase in 2015, and starting in 2016 has now reached a crescendo. The short answer is that Russia has bested the U.S. in the monetary world, diplomatically, militarily, and geo-politically. The specific’s are as follows:


  1. Since 2014, Russia has not contributed to the U.S. reserve currency welfare fund. Russia must sell its oil, natural gas, and uranium for US dollars, but since early 2014, immediately exchanges its US dollars for Fort Knox gold. Russia is foiling the reserve currency welfare fund scam.
  2. The U.S. had visions of grandeur when it accomplished the coup in Ukraine. Russia promptly annexed the Crimea, and by so doing, controlled Sevastopol and its major Black Sea naval base. The U.S. major objective was to control the Crimea.
  3. Russia stopped the U.S. sanctioned aggression in Georgia. The U.S. impotently watched Georgia get a bloody nose from Russia.
  4. Russia’s support for Syria in 2015 has precipitated a major reduction of U.S. influence in the Middle East. The U.S. lost its proxy war in Syria. With Iran’s help, Iraq has regained its sovereignty and now U.S. influence is almost gone. Because of the Syrian war, Iran and Hezbollah have become major actors in the Middle East. Because of U.S. mistakes, Turkey has now joined Russia and Iran as the major players in the Middle East. Prior to the Syria debacle, the U.S. controlled southwest Asia, and, therefore, had a means of controlling the Eurasian heartland. Russia, Turkey, and Iran now control southwest Asia. CENTCOM sits impotently in Qatar watching all of this.


A tired-out United States is now left with the tired-out European Union (NATO) and the impotent Japan to project power on the Eurasian continent. Clearly, these assets are inadequate. Now, The U.S. empire is quickly moving towards impotence.


I think that the United States has good reason to be angry, but this anger will not change the global reality.

The People in the Chimney and The Perfect Mothers by Donya Kowalski

Donya’s Poem The People in the Chimney and her essay The Perfect Mothers

 Donya Noudoshani Kowalski is an 8th grade student at St. Mary of the Lakes in Medford, New Jersey. In the fall of 2016, she plans to enter Bishop Eustace Preparatory School which is located in Pennsauken, New Jersey.

 In my opinion, her poem, The People in the Chimney, is powerfully insightful regarding the German people and its un-forgetful and un-forgiving twentieth century crime against humanity – The Holocaust: the genocide of millions of Jews, Slavs, and Roma. The Germans always considered these three groups as the untermenschen – the sub-humans.

 What we see in Donya’s poem and essay is humanity. Humanity appears to be a characteristic which is sorely lacking in the Germanic psyche.


 The People in the Chimney

By: Donya Kowalski


Darkness overtakes Auschwitz

as people in striped pajamas filled the camp


The smoke of my people

filled the once clear sky


I look out past the barbed wire

at the world I used to live in


I push a wheelbarrow full of dirt

and imagine that I am doing yard work


As the list of numbers for the showers was being called

I heard

Vier und fünfzig drei hundert ein und neunzig

My life

was going to go up a chimney


The German guards barked orders

The people in the striped pajamas

marched to the shower


Thousands of us squeezed into the chamber

The door was bolted shut


The gas began to fill our lungs

We slumped over into piles


We did not deserve this fate

We did not deserve to end our life

by going up a chimney

We did not deserve to be killed like

an infestation of bugs

We did not deserve this at all  


The Perfect Mothers

By: Donya Kowalski

           All my life my mom has gone to the ends of the earth to make me happy. When my best friend passed away, I was devastated. My mother knew exactly what I needed to hear. Mary shared the same maternal instinct with her son. Mothers always know what their children need. Mary knew that Jesus needed her to stay by his side and my mom knew I just needed a hug from her.

My mother has shown her endless love for me all my life. When I get sick, she cares for me. My mom brings me food and medicine and helps me to feel better by simply loving me. If I am scared, she will embrace me in a tight hug. I automatically know that she loves me so much that she wouldn’t let anything hurt me. Mary showed the same love to her son, Jesus. As he was carrying the cross that he would soon die on, Mary followed by his side. Mary loved her son so much that she stayed with him through his suffering. I see that same love from my own mother.

When I have doubts that I am able to do anything, my mom encourages me to do my best. She knows that I am capable of doing anything I set my mind to. The night before the entrance exam for high school, I became very worried. Thoughts of not being accepted filled my mind. Without me saying a word, my mother could tell I was worried. She told me she knew I would do great and that I had nothing to worry about. I knew that if she thought I could do it, then I really would do well. Like my mom, Mary encouraged her son. Even though Jesus did not feel ready to perform his very first miracle, Mary knew he was ready. Jesus changed water from a well to an abundance of the best wine at a wedding with help from his mother’s encouraging words.

My mom is patient with me when she asks me to do my chores. I usually respond with, “I will do it in a minute.” My mom knows that I really mean that I am not going to do my chores. She is patient with me and calmly tells me to do them. After a while, I give in and do them. Without my mom’s patience, she would have a hard time when I need to do chores. When Mary and Joseph were leaving Jerusalem after the Passover, they discovered that Jesus was missing. They searched everywhere for him. Mary was patient and did not get mad at Jesus when they found him sitting in temple with the teachers. That took a lot of patience and bravery not to worry about Jesus.

Out of all the people I know, my mom is the bravest one. She always manages to smile, no matter what the situation. When my grandmother was diagnosed with breast cancer, my mom went with her to all of her chemotherapy and radiation treatments. After spending a long day at the hospital with my grandmother, she would come home with a smile. Although my grandmother was going through harsh treatments, my mother made sure I knew everything would be alright. Like my mom, Mary was also brave. When the angel Gabriel came to Mary, she took on a great challenge. The angel told her that she would be the mother of God’s son. She knew it would be tough, but Mary accepted it.

I am so grateful to have a mother as loving as mine. She always believes in me and I know that she will always keep me safe. I see Mary in my mom everyday. Mary loved her son so much that she stayed by his side during his suffering. She was brave enough to take the challenge of being his mother. Both my mom and Mary are the perfect example of a mother who would do anything for their child because they care about them so much.




Russia’s Hybrid War Against The United States: Which Economic Option Do You Want? A voluntary ‘soft landing’, or, an imposed ‘hard landing’? (Open letter from Russia to the United States.)


February 8, 2016:

Rotislav Ischenko, President of Centre for System Analysis and Forecasting (Kiev) currently living in Moscow, wrote an article entitled “Time Is Running Out For Pax Americana’s Apologists” which was published in the Oriental Review on November 11, 2015.( Mr. Ischenko stated:

“The paradox of the current global crisis is that for the last five years, all relatively responsible and independent nations have made tremendous efforts to save the United States from the financial, economic, military, and political disaster that looms ahead. And this is all despite Washington’s equally systematic moves to destabilize the world order, rightly known as the Pax Americana.”

Mr. Ischenko states that “A crisis erupts within any system when there is a discrepancy between its internal structure and the sum total of available resources (that is, those resources will eventually prove inadequate for the system to function normally and in the usual way). And, that the system is faced with three options: reform, collapse, or through preservation. He states, as quoted above, that the United States has ignored for the last five years facing up to the fact that it no longer has the “financial, economic, military, and political” resources to be the world’s hegemon, and the “Russian-Chinese approach has made a point of offering Washington a compromise option that endorses the gradual, evolutionary erosion of American hegemony, plus the incremental reform of international financial, economic, military, and political relations on the basis of the existing system of international law.”

Mr. Ischenko concludes his open letter as follows: “But the US needs to think fast. Their resources are shrinking much faster than the authors of the plan for imperial preservation had expected. To their loss of control over the BRICS countries can be added the incipient, but still fairly rapid loss of control over EU policy as well as the onset of geopolitical maneuvering among the monarchies of the Middle East. The financial and economic entities created and set in motion by the BRICS nations are developing in accordance with their own logic, and Moscow and Beijing are not able to delay their development overlong while waiting for the US to suddenly discover a capacity to negotiate.

The point of no return will pass once and for all sometime in 2016, and America’s elite will no longer be able to choose between the provisions of compromise and collapse. The only thing that they will then be able to do is to slam the door loudly, trying to drag the rest of the world after them into the abyss.”

From December 13, 2013, the Accumulation/Distribution line for the SPDR Gold Trust Shares (GLD) on the NYSE has been advancing in a positive manner. The GLD (SPDR Gold Trust Shares) price has continued trending down along a trend line that goes back to October 1, 2012, and in late January 2016 broke through to the up-side.. Clearly, a divergence between price and accumulation. This divergence between strong accumulation and never-ending lower prices is un-explainable. All of this can be seen on the GLD price chart shown in the link:

Oriental Review published Grandmaster Putin’s Trap written by Dmitri Kalinichenko ( ) on December 25, 2014, and, which is, referenced in Rotislav Ischenko’s Time Is Running Out For Pax Americana’s Apologists. One year before the English translation date, the “smart money” began its accumulation. This group, with its superior intelligence gathering, was aware of what Russia and China were doing relative to selling their dollars received from trade for gold and were purchasing gold via the GLD ETF.

Grandmaster Putin’s Trap states:

“Thus, the Western world, built on the hegemony of the petrodollar, is in a catastrophic situation. In which it cannot survive without oil and gas supplies from Russia. And Russia is now ready to sell its oil and gas to the West only in exchange for physical gold! The twist of Putin’s game is that the mechanism for the sale of Russian energy to the West only for gold now works regardless of whether the West agrees to pay for Russian oil and gas with its artificially cheap gold, or not.

Because Russia, having a regular flow of dollars from the sale of oil and gas, in any case, will be able to convert them to gold with current gold prices, depressed by all means by the West. That is, at the price of gold, which had been artificially and meticulously lowered by the Fed and ESF many times, against artificially inflated purchasing power of the dollar through market manipulation.

Interesting fact: the suppression of gold prices by the special department of US Government – ESF (Exchange Stabilization Fund) – with the aim of stabilizing the dollar has been made into a law in the United States.

In the financial world it is accepted as a given that gold is an antidollar.

  • In 1971, US President Richard Nixon closed the ‘gold window’, ending the free exchange of dollars for gold, guaranteed by the US in 1944 at Bretton Woods.
  • In 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin has reopened the ‘gold window’, without asking Washington’s permission.

Right now the West spends much of its efforts and resources to suppress the prices of gold and oil. Thereby, on the one hand to distort the existing economic reality in favor of the US dollar and on the other hand, to destroy the Russian economy, refusing to play the role of obedient vassal of the West.

Today assets such as gold and oil look proportionally weakened and excessively undervalued against the US dollar. It is a consequence of the enormous economic effort on the part of the West.

And now Putin sells Russian energy resources in exchange for these US dollars, artificially propped by the efforts of the West. With which he immediately buys gold, artificially devalued against the U.S. dollar by the efforts of the West itself!”

 Grandmaster Putin’s Trap summarizes as follows:

“The Western economic establishment can see and understand the essence of the situation. Leading Western economists are certainly aware of the severity of the predicament and hopelessness of the situation the Western world finds itself in, in Putin’s economic gold trap. After all, since the Bretton Woods agreements, we all know the Golden rule: “Who has more gold sets the rules.” But everyone in the West is silent about it. Silent because no one knows now how to get out of this situation.

If you explain to the Western public all the details of the looming economic disaster, the public will ask the supporters of a petrodollar world the most terrible questions, which will sound like this:

How long will the West be able to buy oil and gas from Russia in exchange for physical gold?

And what will happen to the US petrodollar after the West runs out of physical gold to pay for Russian oil, gas and uranium, as well as to pay for Chinese goods?

No one in the West today can answer these seemingly simple questions.

And this is called “Checkmate”, ladies and gentlemen. The game is over.

Henry Kissinger’s recent visit with President Putin appears to be round 1 of the Rockefeller interests to find a Russian-US compromise as a response to Ischenko’s Time Is Running Out For Pax Americana. It’s likely a non-starter since Kissinger’s approach for a New World Order was more a United States-Russian partnership with the United States as the senior partner and Russia a junior partner.

If so, we can look forward to a U.S. economic collapse in 2016.





SCRANTON: The Prosperity of Coal; The European Immigrants; The Polish National Catholic Church; The Kowalski Family.

SCRANTON: The Prosperity of Coal; The European Immigrants; The Polish National Catholic Church; The Kowalski Family.    Sylvester J. Kowalski, May 6, 2015.

 Three important Scranton issues.

Scranton’s nineteenth and early twentieth century prosperity was due to its extensive anthracite coal seams. Most of the coal miners were poorly paid European immigrants who, eventually, wanted better pay and working conditions. Labor turmoil ensued. Concurrently, the Polish coal miners were experiencing the same type of language and culture repression as they did in Poland by the Roman Catholic Church. Rebellion against the Roman Church became frequent, and, out of this rebellion, the Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC) was born. The Kowalski family was intimately involved with coal mining, the labor turmoil, and the PNCC.

The 1st Industrial Revolution and Scranton’s prosperity.

John Kowalski, my grandfather, came to the Pennsylvania anthracite region from Poland because of the abundance of jobs which contrasted with their scarcity in Poland.

The technological innovations of converting the energy of coal into the mechanical energy of steam-driven engines ushered in the 1st Industrial Revolution. The northeast Pennsylvania 19th century economic boom was propelled by this region’s abundant supply of anthracite coal. It was an extension of the 1st Industrial Revolution.

Steam-driven engines permitted: the de-watering of coal mines; the powering of textile manufacturing machinery and machine tools; the building of steam-driven locomotives for transportation; the development of steam-driven marine engines for ship propulsion; the construction of steam-driven farm implements and tractors; and, when electricity became practical, the development of steam-driven electrical generators.

Pennsylvania had an abundance of coal and northeast Pennsylvania had the bulk of the country’s anthracite (hard) coal. The anthracite coal region required immense numbers of workers. Most of them came from Europe. The worker’s nationality were: England/Wales – 21%; Germany – 12%; Ireland – 16%; Poland/Russia – 26%; and all other – 25%.

The Kowalski family, Nanticoke, and Scranton.

John Kowalski is the patriarch of Kowalski family. He was born in 1857, and emigrated from the Polish Province of Poznan (western Poland) in 1882. His parents are Lorenz Kowalski and Elizabeth Zbiarwony.   Maria Henke was born in the same province in the year 1863.

Kowalski, in Polish, means the son of a smith or blacksmith. Polish surnames frequently depicted the father’s occupation. John’s father likely was a blacksmith. A blacksmith “manufactured” gates, grilles, railings, light fixtures, tools, agricultural implements, cooking utensils, etc.

According to the 1900 census, John arrived in the US in 1882.  In 1900 he and Maria lived at 24 Slope Street in Nanticoke Pennsylvania.   John and Maria had 5 children: Elizabeth born 1891; Constantine born 1899; Sylvester born 1902; Edmund in 1904; and, Joseph 1907. John’s employment was as a coal miner. In 1903, John owned a saloon located at Broadway and Lee in Nanticoke.

The 1900 census tells us that Maria Henke emigrated to the US in 1884. She certainly came to find a husband. Why Nanticoke? Likely, she came to Nanticoke because her mother’s first cousin lived in Nanticoke, Pennsylvania. Maria’s mother’s first cousin, Vincent Kołodziejczak, lived nearby at 286 West Union Street.

A huge number of men emigrated from Europe to the United States.  This gave mothers, such as, Antonina Kolodziej Henke a problem: How can they marry-off their daughters, such as, Maria Henke?  The most practical solution was to send them to the United States.  But, where, and who would watch over these young ladies?  If one had a trusted relative already in the United States, perhaps that individual would help.  Possibly, Antonina trusted Vincent and arranged for Maria to go to Nanticoke.  Vincent and his wife would help find a boarding establishment if they themselves could not board her.  Until Mary married, she would have the support of her Nanticoke extended family.  Mary was single for 5 years after arriving in the US.

King coal and life in the 1930s Scranton.

Life in Scranton in the 1930s must be viewed, first and foremost, from the coal miner’s perspective. This will first be done. Secondly, I will look at life in Scranton through my perspective for the years 1930 to 1942.

Labor turmoil in the anthracite coal region.

What follows chiefly comes from:

  • A DECADE OF TURMOIL: JOHN L. LEWIS AND THE ANTHRACITE MINERS 1926-1936, Douglas Keith Monroe’s Dissertation. (Georgetown University)
  • The Face of Decline: The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century Thomas D. Dublin and Walter Light

The immigrant coal miners were exploited by the coal-mine owners. Waves of immigrants, particularly in the 19th century, provided cheap labor for these coal mines. The disparate immigrant groups were simply exploited, paid low wages, and forced to live in communities which were fragmented by ethnic barriers and without adequate socialization and integration opportunities. The living conditions were a form of apartheid. But, was very profitable for the mine owners.

In the year1918, 121 million tons of anthracite coal was mined. This was the peak for the entire coal mining cycle. In 1928, only 75 million tons were mined.

The reduced coal production created labor turmoil. A series of disruptive strikes led anthracite customers to seek alternative fuels. The 2nd Industrial Revolution based on oil and the internal combustion engine already had began, and became a significant rival to coal. Customers began to use oil for heating.

Four issues affected the long-term fate of anthracite.

First, by 1926, the easily mined coal was depleted. Second, Domestic coal faced stiff competition from oil and natural gas. Bituminous coal was much cheaper for the steam coal electrical generating market. Third, waterpower electrical generation was becoming a more serious competitor. And, fourth, the western market shrank and Northeast industrial market became stagnant.

The consequence of anthracite coal’s shrinking market share was labor turmoil not only between coal operators and the UMW, but also between the coal miners and the UMW.

The coal operator’s reaction to the coal industry decay was, first, to cut costs in any way possible to improve productivity, and, second, to discontinue the operation of collieries that were the least profitable. Employment dropped from 165,386 in 1926 to 101,500 in 1937. Annual days worked dropped by 24%.

The consequential unemployment brought poverty to the coal miners, and encouraged miners to steal or “bootleg” the coal needed for their homes and to sell to the public. The UMWA/coal operator relations became extremely turbulent.

In the aftermath of the 1925 strike, the coal miners warred with both the UMWA and the coal operators. Many violent local strikes occurred. With the onslaught of The Great Depression in 1930, the unemployment and underemployment brought misery to the coal miners.

The coal miner’s believed that the UMW ignored the poverty stricken coal miners. The coal miner’s realized that the reduced coal mining meant reduced total working hours. What they saw was that insider-favored miners were working full time, while others considered themselves fortunate if they were able to work five days per month. The coal miners wanted an equalization of days worked. This didn’t suit the coal operators nor the union insiders, and from 1930 to 1933, the coal miners warred against John L. Lewis and the UMW. Local strikes and violence were frequent.

On August 1933, John Maloney led the angry coal miners into a new union – United Anthracite Miners of Pennsylvania (UAMP), and in October 1933, UAMP struck the Glen Alden Company and its 19 collieries.

John Maloney became the leader of UAMP. At this time, my father, Sylvester C. Kowalski, was president of his UMW local, and, with membership’s approval, led it into the UAMP. Their meetings took place in the Kowalski home on East Locust Street. As a four-year old, I met the members and listened to their discussions from the second floor. My father’s UAMP local participated in the very violent strike against Glen Alden’s Baker Colliery located in Scranton.

The strike started “a reign of terror”, one with bombings and shootings commonplace. Battalion’s of miners blocked roads and gates in order to close collieries. Fights broke out frequently. Hundreds were hospitalized. Houses and cars of both UAMP and UMWA were sabotaged. Local and state police were unable to maintain order. The Wilkes-Barre area resembled an armed camp. But, the strike itself was very effective.

UAMP’s betrayal by FDR’s administration

Pressure by FDR’s administration resulted in the National Relations Board (NLRB) and Senator Wagner becoming involved in resolving the UMW/UAMP/Glen Alden strike. The Administration wanted UAMP to submit to NLRB arbitration.

Maloney and UAMP reluctantly agreed to NLRB arbitration. Since John L. Lewis and the UMW had tremendous political power, the final decision was politically motivated and favored the UMW. The second blow that UAMP received was Judge W.A. Valentine 1935 ruling that UAMP was not entitled to the union dues amassed as dues coupons (from dues check-off). UAMP was effectively bankrupted. The combination of the NLRB ruling and Judge Valentine decision meant the demise of UAMP.

In the aftermath, John Maloney, his son, Thomas, Jr., and Hanover Township School Director Michael Gallagher were all killed when packages sent to them exploded on Good Friday, 1936. Even after UAMP was destroyed, the viciousness continued. My father was “black-balled” from ever working for a coal company.

Douglas Keith Monroe states:

“The question which remains is not whether the cards were stacked against Maloney and his mine workers. They clearly were and and under the conditions which were imposed on his new union, it was probably destined to fail.”

“… whether the UAMP’s was good or bad, and whether it had any impact in its brief life.”

“Maloney was an idealist and in many respects a true radical, a man who was captivated by a strong sense of right and wrong. He was convinced that the UMW was corrupt, inefficient and lacking in ideas needed to better the conditions of the anthracite workers. In this regard he cannot be faulted.”

Maloney more than anyone dramatized the equalization issue. Since the onset of the 1918 coal mining slowdown, the coal miners insisted on an equalization of hours worked by all UMW members. Instead, the privileged few, such as, UMW insiders were working full time while many at the opposite end of the spectrum were working less than five days per week. Maloney forced the UMW to re-organize and give the mine workers a voice in policy making, and he forced John L. Lewis to stop his arbitrary decision-making.

The post-UAMP Kowalski family sunk into deep poverty. The East Locust Street home’s mortgage was defaulted, and the family needed to move. For a time, my father “worked” with the Federal WPA (Works Project Administration. In 1937, the “tide” changed. My father was able to get employment as a coal miner at the Moffat Coal Company in Taylor, PA, on the basis that he would not participate in any union activity. Even better, in early 1939, my father obtained a mechanic’s position at the Manor Farms of Fleetville, PA. He repaired dairy equipment and serviced its truck fleet.

The saving grace for the Kowalski family was that it had three wonderful extended families.  the Janchak family (my father’s sister); the Sysko/Kosciuk family (my maternal grandmother), and St. Stanislaus PNCC Cathedral.

The Janczak family provided the young Kowalski’s with much love and support. Ciotka, our father’s sister Elizabeth, and her three children, Regina, Rose, and Leo, provided us with sleep-overs, treats, such as, ice cream, and, at times, the only Christmas presents that we received. Later, my father arranged for Leo to be his assistant at Manor Farms.

My maternal grandmother, Bronislawa Lewandoska, was, in my opinion, the 1st Polish feminist. When she was 16, her father pressured her to marry a Russian soldier. This was not what she wished, and, secretly, left her home, emigrated to the U.S., married Joseph Sysko, and both lived in the Greenwood section of Moosic Borough for the rest of their lives.

The Sysko/Kosciuk family.

Joseph Sysko died at the age of 29, and his family needed to find a survival strategy. Family survival for the European immigrant families meant remarriage when the coal miner father experienced premature death which was frequent. Death from mine explosions and cave-ins were frequent. The coal miner’s surviving family had no financial resources. Benefits, such as, Survivor’s Benefits, relief payments, or food stamps were not available. For survival, the young widow had no choice other than to remarry. Likely, the coal region’s had a deficit of marriageable females, and surviving widows had no difficulty finding a second husband. Likely, there was a shortage of marriageable females.

Bronislawa’s grandchildren loved her. We were frequently at her house on Sundays. She always had a feast of fried chicken, her own fresh sausage and plenty of fixings’. Dessert was her homemade pie, apple or strawberry-rhubarb, all from her own yard.

The Sysko/Kosciuk family was the second of the important extended families.

Our third extended family was Saint Stanislaus PNCC. Why was PNCC an important extended family? St. Stanislaus Cathedral showed: love; security; consideration; assistance in time of need; education; a Christ-like holy culture; love and understanding of the Holy Spirit; and, companionship. It had a traditional Slavic communitarian culture. Here in Scranton, Bishop Hodur nurtured St. Stanislaus’ to be the “Kingdom of God here on earth”.

A PNCC May Day parade took place on the first Sunday of May. The parade started at the St. Stanislaus Cathedral and ended in the recreation area adjacent to the PNCC cemetery. My brother, Vincent Kowalski, is in the foreground and on the extreme right. Such celebrations provided us with pride in both our Polish culture and pride of being Americans.

The Polish National Catholic Church: Its Origin; Why it was Founded; The Organizer – Prime Bishop Francis Hodur; The theology of Bishop Hodur .

The Organizer – Bishop Francis Hodur

“Franciszek Jan (Francis John) Hodur was born in Poland in the village of Zarki in the country of Chrzanow, a coal minig region in what was then the Austrian section of Upper Silesia, on April 1, 1866, the son of Maria and Jan Hodur, a country tailor and farmer. He completed his secondary education in Krakow in 1889 at St. Anne’s Gymnasium of the 300 year old Nowodworski Lyceum, perhaps the fines prepatory school in the country, where he was one of the highest ranking students. Entering the Vincentian theological seminary, at that time affiliated with the Jagellonian University, he continued as an excellent student. However, his budding career was cut short in 1892 and he came to America early in 1893, where he entered the Roman Catholic seminary in Betty (now Latrobe), Pennsylvania. On August 19, he was ordained a priest by Bishop William O’Hara in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

“At first, a vicar in Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary Parish in Scranton, in 1895 he was appointed pastor of Holy Trinity Church in not-far-distant Nanticoke. As in many Roman Catholic parishes throughout the United States, a protest movement developed at Sacred Hearts in 1896, leading to the building of a new church, St. Stanislaus. [Sacred heart of Jesus and Mary and St. Stanislaus are a distance of one block from each other.] Father Hodur accepted the invitation of the dissident parish to become its first pastor in 1897. The date of his arrival, March 14, has become the traditionaldate marking the beginning of the Polish National Catholic church.” (From the Biographical Note in Hodur: A Compilation of Selected Translations by Theodore L. Zawistowski.)

“Bishop Hodur was a brilliant and complex priest who devoted his life to God and building the Kingdom of God here on earth.

“Why did Bishop Hodur organize the PNCC? This is how Bishop Grochowski, Bishop Hodur’s successor responded:

During the observance of the 60th Anniversary of the founding of St. Stanislaus parish and the Polish National Catholic Church, a logical question prods the mind: What were the fundamental causes for bringing into existence the Scranton parish in general? A clear and truthful answer must be given for our own assurance and for the assurance of the future of the Church which depends on the proper knowledge and preservation of our ideology and our aims.

“THE FIRST AND THE MOST IMPORTANT REASON FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ST. STANISLAUS PARISH AND OF THE POLISH NATIONAL CATHOLIC CHURCH, HAD BEEN THE DESIRE AND DEEP CRAVING FOR THE IDEALS OF THE RELIGION OF JESUS CHRIST. THE ORGANIZER OF THE POLISH NATIONAL CATHOLIC CHURCH CARRIED AND NURTURED THESE IDEALS IN HIS HEART AND IN HIS SOUL, because he lived according to the teachings of Jesus, and he knew how to evaluate their blessed worth. Unfortunately God’s truth was neither applied in the life of the Church, nor in the social or national life. The foremost Polish philosopher and Christian, August Cieszkowski, who knew that danger lay in the spiritually degenerate condition of the European nations, sounded this warning:

“Holy God, what is happening in the world! So much hostility and so much repulsiveness. Everywhere truth is on the decline and falsehood in ascendancy. The world is attiring itself for a marriage feast amidst the cries of hungry nations and those being murdered. A sea of pleasure and an ocean of pain, pleasure accompanied by weariness, despair and pain. Vanity prances while virtue idles. The arm of the flesh is lascivious, the arm of spirit is decrepit. The Word of God is on the lips of all, abused, it doesn’t live in them, nor do they live by the Word. Brotherhood of peoples and nations proclaimed, but the crime of Cain passes on from people to nations.”

“The Polish philosopher saw the moral decline of the Roman church and of the nations. The Organizer of the Polish National Catholic Church wrote and taught the same. He cautioned and pleaded with the highest authorities of the Roman Catholic Church, but he met with rejection and anathema. The only road left, was the road chosen by the Son of God, Jesus Christ, and he has taken it.”


Our Organizer was an expert historian. He studied the misfortunes which Poland experienced at the hands of Rome. On this continent, he had foreseen a slow death for Polish culture under the Irish-German ecclesiastical domination. It had been the aim and scheme of the Roman Bishops to bring about this regimentation. The motto coined by Bishop Tierney of Hartford, Conn., was “ONE GOD, ONE FAITH, ONE LANGUAGE AND ONE CHURCH JURISDICTION IN AMERICA.” This motto was adopted by other Roman Catholic Bishops. Some of them, such as, Richter, Messmer, Katzer, Ireland and Tierney prohibited singing Polish hymns and prohibited the Polish language in the churches and in the parish schools.

“The emergence of the Polish National Catholic Church has to a large degree slowed down these anti-Polish schemes of the Irish and German bishops. The Polish Press, both in Poland and America has written extensively about the merits of culture-preservation by the Polish National Catholic Church through the untiring efforts of its founder, Bishop Francis Hodur.


“A certain anonymous writer who understood the importance of the role of Bishop Hodur stated:

“His work arose from a fervent religious and national longing, nourished by the eternal elements of God’s goodness and justice. Through him and by him had spoken the spirit of a true priest, a Pole and Emancipator of our times. He has delved into the deepest layers of Christian tradition, those which affect man’s morale. He has shown how collective religious life and activity must be organized and sustained in order to contribute to the moral, social and national growth.

“He has regained for the Church of Jesus, light and liberty. He has liberated his people from the bonds of a lifeless, dogmatized faith and has pointed to the unlimited possibilities of growth which freedom of religion offers to the individual and the nation.

“In this manner a new religious organization came into being. It is full of vitality and is ready to serve God, nation and man.

“He measured the greatness of the Polish National Catholic Church by the magnitude of its aims and by the degree of the moral and religious regeneration of its communicants.”


“We cannot overlook the merits of the Scranton people in this historical sketch. They stood firmly by their good shepherd. They felt intuitively that they were in the presence of a man of God. They believed that the work that they began with their leader would be blessed by God. Their feelings and beliefs did not deceive them. We must marvel at their courage and gallantry with which they triumphed over the numerous obstacles and discrimination directed at them. We must marvel at their faith, their brave stand and Christian courage. Newly arising parishes of the Polish National Catholic Church received not only able assistance of the Organizer but of the whole St. Stanislaus Congregation. They visited even distant towns to strengthen and comfort those who dared to break the shackles of Roman slavery. No other parish has borne greater sacrifices for the Church. The members of the first parish always were and still are the most numerously represented at the General Synods, Conventions and religious or patriotic demonstrations. They are ready at all times to undertake and perform any service for the good of the Church.


“The influence of the Holy Spirit was clearly experienced during the many important events which took place in Scranton, Pa. To the delegation of the people from Scranton wronged by the Roman Bishop, in 1896, Father Francis Hodur said:


“The advice was very stirring. The organizational work was undertaken immediately and the activity was not stopped until full success was assured.

“Father Francis Hodur, then made a trip to Rome to see what could be done to help those who were wronged by the Roman hierarchy. He returned early in March of 1898. Ammeting of St. Stanislaus Congregation was called for the second Sunday of March at which Father Hodur presented the results of his efforts made in the “eternal city.” They were negative, nevertheless they were blessed with far-reaching consequences. Father Hodur had discovered that no just solution of any problems presented in Rome on behalf of the Scranton Congregation could be expected. The rebuff which Father Hodur met in Rome contributed to the organization of the Polish National Catholic Church for which we should perpetually thank God and bless His Holy Name. Upon notifying his congregation of the refusal which met their just petition, Father Hodur said:

“It is for you to decide now what steps we must take in the future. If you think that the spirit of the decisions of the Baltimore Synod are binding as just laws, and that by accepting those decisions, you can serve God in all peace and tranquility and live happily, tell me now, so that I may notify Bishops O’Hara and Hoban, and through them the Apostolic Legate Martinelli, that you are willing to recognize their jurisdiction.”

“At this moment, an ardent and active parishioner, Michael Szczyglinski stood up and asked, “What will happen to you, Father, what do you intend to do?”

“I shall not return under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Bishop. I shall not return to the Roman Church,” replied Father Hodur firmly and distinctly.

“Then we shall not return either,” replied Michael Szczyglinski, he was supported by thirty other participants of that meeting. A holy ardor overwhelmed the gathering. They all stood up: men and women, raised their hands to show their indomnitable decision and repeated: “We shall not return!”

“It was a holy and decisive moment. It was the moment when the Free Polish National Catholic was born. That holy ardor – the gift of the Holy Spirit – imparted itself to all present. A similar ardor enveloped the Apostles and people gathered together with them during the great day of Pentecost.

“The Scranton people became an instrument in the hands of God by transforming into action a holy and great task. On that day the people of Scranton, led by their pastor, and inspired by God, set the foundations for a free Polish Church.

“When Bishops O’Hara and Hoban were informed of the decisions reached, Father Hodur and the Scranton Parish were excommunicated. Father Francis Hodur read the document of excommunication from the pulpit to acquaint his parishioners with the diatribe. He then burned it and the ashes were thrown into the brook which flows beneath the hill upon which St. Stanislaus Cathedral stands. While excommunication terrified even kings, the Scranton Congregation refused to be bullied into Roman submission!

“The burning ceremony of that un-Christian and barbaric document generated an indescribable enthusiasm among those present in church. Some toiled the bells, some sang, some prayed aloud, some embraced and kissed each other, while others approached the pulpit to greet Father Francis Hodur who was descending from it as though he were returning from another world. Others jumped over the communion railing, crowded into the sanctuary and cried out loudly: “God is with us Father. He will not forsake us, his children. God is with us!” They were transformed. The spirit to Power, of Faith, and of Valor descended upon this inspired congregation, which was starting a new, free and dangerously expendable life.

“God was with us, He is with us and shall continue to be with us as long as we remain united with Him in our hearts, minds and souls.

“The un-Christian excommunication of Father Hodur and of the Scranton Congregation, set loose a storm of abuse. In a land of brotherhood and freedom of religion, the Roman hierarchy and its faithful conducted a veritable “holy” inquisition. Against the Polish National Catholic Congregation of Scranton, every evil abuse was employed: discrimination in mines and factories, good names besmirched, beatings and cruel treatment – all this, in the name of the “One, True, Church” which is not willing to practice the Fatherhood of God nor the love of the Son, Jesus Christ.”

Bishop Francis Hodur was, without doubt, an important religious reformer. His life’s work in bringing the word of God, the teachings of Jesus Christ, and his work in bringing the Kingdom of God to St. Stanislaus compares him favorably with an earlier Roman Church reformer, Jan Hus. Jan Hus, the founder of the Hussite movement, was one of many reformers who tried to get the Roman church to reform prior to the Reformation. He was asked to go to Rome to defend his views, which he did, and his king gave him assurance of safe passage. The evil Roman Church burned Jan Hus at the stake ignoring his safe passage. Hus and many other reformers of that period failed to get Rome to change, and the outcome was the Reformation.

We need to take cognizance of the environment from which the Polish immigrants came from. Since the latter part of the 18th century, Poland no longer existed. Poland was partitioned by Prussia, Russia, and the Hapsburg Empire. Prussia, in particular, aggressively Germanized their part of Poland. German was the only acceptable administrative language, and Polish was forbidden to be taught in schools. For these immigrants, having their language and culture marginalized after coming to the “land of brotherhood and religious freedom” was an insult. The Polish language and culture had to be embedded into the new Church.

Bishop’s Grochowski’s history is almost equivalent to the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament. My association with St. Stanislaus from 1st grade to 9th, gives me confidence to state that the Holy Spirit indeed protected St. Stanislaus and the Polish National Catholic Church.

A PNCC reference library.

The following are good references to the Polish National Catholic Church, and can be readily obtained from St. Stanislaus Cathedral on East Locust Street. The APOCALYPSE is a must read.

  • A CATHECHISM of the Polish National Catholic Church.
  • 1897-1957 ALBUM: 60th anniversary of the PNCC.
  • MAN of DESTINY: A Pictorial History.
  • APOCALYPSE: The Revelation of the XXth Century.

The Fundamental Beliefs of the Polish National Catholic church.

The beliefs of the Polish National Catholic Church are in the A Cathechism of the Polish National Catholic Church, in the The Six Truths of Faith as found on page 7:

The Six Truths of Faith.

  1. That there is but one God, who created, preserves and governs all things.
  2. That God is a righteous judge who rewards the good and punishes the wicked.
  3. That there is but one God in three Divine Person: The Father, The Son, and The Holy ghost, or the Holy Trinity.
  4. That the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, out Lord Jesus Christ, became man and died on the cross for our salvation.
  5. That God’s grace is absolutely necessary for salvation.
  6. That the soul is immortal and will never die.

Belief 5, “That God’s grace is absolutely necessary for salvation.” comes from the teachings of Martin Luther. In Bishop Hodur’s APOCALYPSE or The Revelation of the XXth Century, written in 1930, stated, that in his opinion, Martin Luther was a great Christian thinker. Hans Kung wrote the following about Martin Luther in his Great Christian Thinkers:

“So the starting point of Luther’s reforming concern was not any abuses of the church, not even the question of the church, but the question of salvation: how do human beings stand before God? How does God deal with human beings? How can human beings be certain of their salvation by God? How can sinful human beings put right their relationship with the just God? When are they justified by God? Luther found the answer above all in Paul’s Letter to the Romans: human beings cannot stand justified by God, be justified by God, through their own efforts – despite all piety. It is God himself, as a gracious God who pronounces the sinner righteous, without any merits, in his free grace. This is a grace which human beings may confidently grasp only in faith. For Luther, of the three theological virtues faith is the most important: in faith, unrighteous sinful human beings receive God’s righteousness.”

The Two Commandments of Love.

  1. Thou shall love the Lord, thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.
  2. And thy neighbor as thyself.


What is prayer?

Prayer is the lifting up of our minds and hearts to God. It is our talking to God and listening to God.

Why do we pray?

We pray:

  • To adore God, expressing our love and loyalty to Him.
  • To thank Him for his gifts to us.
  • To beg His pardon for our sins and shortcomings.
  • To ask His blessing and graces for ourselves and others.

For what should we pray?

We should pray for God’s help and guidance that we may live and work according to His holy will and attain salvation.

Who was Bishop Hodur?

The book APOCALYPSE: The Revelation of the XXth Century, informs me of: Who Bishop Hodur was. It has two parts: Historical-Sociological; and, Evangelical-Prophetic. In the first section, Bishop Hodur tells us:

“In the first section of the Apocalypse or the Revelation of the XXth Century, called historical part, I moved before the Reader’s eyes the thoughts and sayings of great theologians, excerpts from the Holy Scriptures, as well as eminent personages who played a conspicuous role in the 19 centuries of drama in the Christian church.”  

“I have given an unusually harsh assessment of the Roman catholic church. I have done this not because of hatred or from ill will, for I hate no one and least of all the Roman church, to which, as a priest, I owe so much; but because the Roman church to a high degree is responsible for much of the derailment of Christianity in the past. In the 11th century the Roman church caused the final break with the Eastern and Western churches, in the 16th the Roman church caused the religious revolution called the Reformation and at present impedes the unification of Christianity and thereby prevents the strengthening of its influences on human life and the course of world events.”

And, further:

“In the second part, in the Apocalypse proper, I have undertaken a tremendously difficult task. I wish to remind the Reader of the unique program of Christ’s mission. “

“The primary objective of the messianic life of Jesus was the spiritual regeneration of man and the establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth.”

“This is why, though I am an unworthy man, only a poor and humble Polish priest, I consider it my greatest obligation, a direct Divine command, to remind my Brothers and Sisters of everything that Christ Jesus foretold about the salvation of man and of the Divine Kingdom.”

Christianity as seen by Hans Kung.

Hans Kung wrote two books of especial interest: Om Being a Christian; and, CHRISTIANITY: Essence, History, and Future.

In the book, CHRISTIANITY, Father Kung wrote in “The Aim of This Book” as follows:

“Christianity should become more Christian – that is the only possible perspective for the third millennium, too. The Roman system, Orthodox traditionalism and Protestant fundamentalism are all historical manifestations of Christianity. They have not always been there, and one day they will disappear. Why? Because they are not of the essence of Christianity.”

These are powerful words. Father Kung unequivocally states that the three major “Christian” groupings are devoid of the essence of Christianity. They are not followers of Christ.

In contrast, Bishop Hodur built the Polish National Catholic Church on the foundation of Christ’s teaching. Specifically, that each person has the right, and the duty, to develop a personal relationship with God, and that each of us have a responsibility to assist in the development of the Kingdom of God here on earth.

Bishop Hodur’s faith and brilliance informs me that he is the greatest Christian leader since the Reformation.